Pass (on) the Chips

Eating Ultraprocessed Foods Tied to Diabetes Risk

Higher intake of ultraprocessed foods (for example, packaged snack foods) is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, according to a prospective study in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Over 100,000 French adults completed a series of 24-hour dietary recall questionnaires over a 2-year period. During a median follow-up of 6 years, roughly 820 participants were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

After adjustment for body-mass index, physical activity, and other confounders, participants who ate more ultraprocessed foods were at higher risk for diabetes. In particular, the risk increased by 13% with each 10% increase in the proportion of diet comprising ultraprocessed foods.

The authors note that in previous studies, ultraprocessed foods have been linked to increased risks for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and mortality.

JAMA Internal Medicine article (Free abstract)

Background: Physician’s First Watch coverage of ultraprocessed foods & mortality (Free)

NEJM Journal Watch is produced by NEJM Group, a division of the Massachusetts Medical Society. Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Junk food = bad.

Fake Burgers = also bad.

Got DM1? Don’t do Pot

Abstract

OBJECTIVE We examined the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in cannabis users compared with nonusers in the T1D Exchange clinic registry (T1DX).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The association between cannabis use by total substance score for cannabis (TSC) and DKA in the past 12 months was examined using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders among adults in the T1DX.

RESULTS Of 932 adults with type 1 diabetes, 61 had a TSC >4, which classified them as moderate cannabis users. Adjusting for sex, age at study visit, and HbA1c, cannabis use was associated with a twofold increase in risk for DKA among adults with type 1 diabetes (odds ratio 2.5 [95% CI 1.0–5.9]).

CONCLUSIONS Cannabis use was associated with an increased risk for DKA among adults in the T1DX. Providers should inform their patients of the potential risk of DKA with cannabis use.

© 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.

Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Risk for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Findings From the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry

A Plant-based Diet may Lower type 2 Diabetes Risk

Findings  In this systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies assessing the association between plant-based dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes among adults, higher adherence to plant-based dietary patterns was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes; this association was strengthened when healthy plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, were included in the pattern. Findings were broadly consistent in several prespecified subgroups and in sensitivity analyses.

Take this link to the JAMA Internal Medicine article.

Take this link to the Harvard T.H. Chan press release.

 

Whole grains one of the most important food groups for preventing type 2 diabetes

The proportion who developed type 2 diabetes was lowest in the group which reported the highest wholegrain consumption, and increased for each group which had eaten less wholegrain. In the group with the highest wholegrain intake, the diabetes risk was 34 percent lower for men, and 22 percent lower for women, than in the group with the lowest wholegrain intake.

“It is unusual to be able to investigate such a large range when it comes to how much wholegrain people eat,” says Rikard Landberg. “If you divided American participants into 4 groups, the group that ate the most wholegrain would be the same level as the group that ate the least wholegrain in Denmark. In Europe, Scandinavia eats the most, Spain and Italy the least.”

Additionally, the study was uncommonly large, with 55,000 participants, over a long time span — 15 years.

My source article is here and the study abstract can be found here.

 

A Population-Based Study of the Bidirectional Association Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes in Three Prospective U.S. Cohorts

CONCLUSIONS –  OSA is independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes, whereas insulin-treated diabetes is independently associated with a higher risk of OSA, particularly in women. Clinical awareness of this bidirectional association may improve prevention and treatment of both diseases. Future research aimed at elucidating the mechanisms that underlie each association may identify novel intervention targets.

Access the study here.

Vegan Diet Rapidly Improves Type 2 Diabetes Markers in Adults

The 16-week randomized controlled trial in 73 adults showed that participants who ate a diet of vegetables, grains, legumes, and fruits significantly improved their overall metabolic condition, say Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine in Washington, DC, and colleagues.

Small RCT study.  Source article here.

5 Classifications of Diabetes Proposed

  1. Severe autoimmune diabetes (formerly type 1 diabetes): affected 6% of patients in the derivation cohort; characteristics include early-onset disease, relatively low BMI, and GADA-positive
  2. Severe insulin-deficient diabetes: 18% of patients; GADA-negative but similar to cluster 1; lowest HOMA2-B scores
  3. Severe insulin-resistant diabetes: 15%; higher HOMA2-IR scores
  4. Mild obesity-related diabetes: 22%; obese, but not insulin resistant
  5. Mild age-related diabetes: 39%; older than other clusters, but largely similar to cluster 4

Quoted from  NEJM Journal Watch.

 

Consumption of antioxidant-rich foods is associated with a lower risk of DM2

A lower risk of type 2 diabetes has been observed among individuals consuming food rich in antioxidants. This effect is largely contributed by fruit, vegetables, tea and other hot beverages, as well as moderate consumption of alcohol, as shown in a recent study from an Inserm research group, published in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).

Source article here.

Eating meat linked to higher risk of diabetes — ScienceDaily

These findings come from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which recruited 63,257 adults aged 45-74 years between 1993 and 1998, and then followed them up for an average of about 11 years. The study found a positive association between intakes of red meat and poultry, and risk of developing diabetes. Specifically, compared to those in the lowest quartile intake, those in the highest quartile intake of red meat and poultry had a 23 per cent and 15 per cent increase in risk of diabetes, respectively, while the intake of fish/shellfish was not associated with risk of diabetes. The increase in risk associated with red meat/poultry was reduced by substituting them with fish/shellfish.

Source: Eating meat linked to higher risk of diabetes — ScienceDaily

Race Ranks Higher than Pounds for South Asians, Hispanics – ScienceDaily

Americans of South Asian descent are twice as likely as whites to have risks for heart disease, stroke and diabetes, when their weight is in the normal range, according to a study headed by Emory University and UC San Francisco.

Similarly, Americans of Hispanic descent were 80 percent more likely than whites to suffer from so-called cardio-metabolic abnormalities that give rise to heart disease, stroke and diabetes, compared with 50 percent more likely for those who were Chinese and African-American.

These risks include high blood pressure (hypertension), elevated glucose, low HDL, the “good cholesterol,” and high triglycerides, a fat found in blood. In the study, participants who were aged between 45 and 84, were classified as having cardio-metabolic abnormalities if they had two or more of these four risk factors.

Source: Race ranks higher than pounds in diabetes, heart-health risks: South Asians, Hispanics of normal weight most likely to have high glucose, hypertension — ScienceDaily