Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

Abstract

Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

Conclusions

Metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and, in particular, in vegans. Those subjects with normal or relatively high salt intake may be associated with unhealthy early vascular changes in function and structure, which have not been well documented in the past. In individuals with subnormal vitamin B-12 status, vitamin B-12 supplementation may significantly improve such vascular changes. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 profile may thus be beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency, and possibly prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

You can download a copy of the full study at this link.

It’s not easy to overcome confirmation bias.  So my research often takes me to studies and articles that challenge my firmest held beliefs.  This literature review study does confirm one of my longest held beliefs.  Some of the sickest people I see are the shoppers in health food stores.

Take some B-12.  Or as this study demonstrates get your B-12  from dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish.

 

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Dietary Supplement Use Was Very High among Older Adults in the United States in 2011–2014

Conclusions: Use of DSs among older adults continues to be high in the United States, with 29% of users regularly taking ≥4 DSs, and there is a high concurrent usage of them with prescription medications.

Source: Dietary Supplement Use Was Very High among Older Adults in the United States in 2011–2014

Justice Department Slaps Supplement Maker With Criminal Charges

These supplements have been linked to dozens adverse health events reported to the FDA such as increased blood pressure, racing heart, liver damage, stroke, seizure and death. During 2014, the agency issued seven recalls and more than 30 public notifications about these products. It also maintains an online list of tainted weight-loss products.

Source: Justice Department Slaps Supplement Maker With Criminal Charges

“Sorry, this dude’s not Preferred.”

“But he’s a good friend, healthy, works out all the time>”

“Does he pump iron?”

“Yeah, why?”

“Does he take any supplements?”

“I don’t know, why?”

“Because his liver enzymes are abnormal and if he’s taking anything tell him to stop.”

“Do you think…”

“I’m not a doctor.”

Increases in Liver Injury Related to Herbal and Dietary Supplements — Physician’s First Watch

Researchers analyzed registry data from some 800 patients with liver injury either from medications excluding acetaminophen or herbal and dietary supplements. In the first 2 years of the registry, 7% of cases were due to herbal and dietary supplements, a proportion that increased to 20% a decade later. Hepatotoxicity from non-bodybuilding-related supplements required liver transplantation more often than injury from conventional drugs 13% vs. 3%; there were no cases of liver transplantation associated with bodybuilding supplements.

via Increases in Liver Injury Related to Herbal and Dietary Supplements — Physician’s First Watch.