Violence associated with psychosis has also been well-documented. Marijuana use may be associated with increased impulsivity on the same day and the following day relative to days when marijuana was not used. It is also associated with increased hostile behaviors and perceptions of hostility in others on the same day compared to days when marijuana was not used. Cannabis use disorder appears to increase the risk of aggression towards others, particularly among youths. There is also evidence of a moderate association between cannabis use and physical violence.
Psychosis can be caused by various conditions, including licit and illicit substances, particularly cannabis. Cannabis has a higher conversion rate to psychosis than other substances. 32 percent of patients with substance-induced psychosis convert to either bipolar or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, with the highest conversion rate found with cannabis-induced psychosis (47 percent). There is debate about the causal relationship between cannabis and psychosis. However, this can be demonstrated using Bradford-Hill criteria. Despite this, psychosis is often multifactorial in many instances. Cannabis exposure increases the risk of psychosis, from transient psychotic states to chronic recurrent psychosis. In individuals with established psychosis, cannabis has a negative impact on the course and expression of the illness.
Californians voted to legalize recreational pot in 2016. Three years later, emergency room visits for cannabis-induced psychosis went up 54% across the state, from 682 to 1,053, according to state hospital data. For people who already have a psychotic disorder, cannabis makes things worse — leading to more ER visits, more hospitalizations, and more legal troubles, said Dr. Deepak Cyril D’Souza, a psychiatry professor at Yale University School of Medicine who also serves on the physicians’ advisory board for Connecticut’s medical marijuana program.
It’s not entirely clear how cannabis hyperemesis syndrome occurs though there are several theories. One is that since cannabinoids have long-half lives and are lipid soluble, they accumulate in the brain and over time cause symptoms, particularly in young people who may have genetic variations in enzymes which lead to further accumulation. Another theory is that there is a thermoregulatory and autonomic imbalance in the limbic system caused by chronic use. Other suggestions are that with long-term consumption cannabis becomes a receptor antagonist, or that they become down-regulated or de-sensitised over time. This reverses the antiemetic effect of cannabis. It seems that chronic over-stimulation of receptors leads to dysregulation of the body’s control of nausea and vomiting, leading to CHS.
The findings come from the long-running Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which has documented cannabis use and measured lung function throughout adult life up to age 45 in more than 1000 individuals born in Dunedin in 1972/73.
OBJECTIVE We examined the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in cannabis users compared with nonusers in the T1D Exchange clinic registry (T1DX).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The association between cannabis use by total substance score for cannabis (TSC) and DKA in the past 12 months was examined using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders among adults in the T1DX.
RESULTS Of 932 adults with type 1 diabetes, 61 had a TSC >4, which classified them as moderate cannabis users. Adjusting for sex, age at study visit, and HbA1c, cannabis use was associated with a twofold increase in risk for DKA among adults with type 1 diabetes (odds ratio 2.5 [95% CI 1.0–5.9]).
CONCLUSIONS Cannabis use was associated with an increased risk for DKA among adults in the T1DX. Providers should inform their patients of the potential risk of DKA with cannabis use.
Previous research by Humphreys and colleagues showed that people who used medical cannabis also had higher rates of opioid use and misuse. “This is one of many examples where claims about the benefits of medical cannabis are not supported by evidence,” Humphreys told MedPage Today. The current study had several limitations: it relied on cross-sectional, self-reported data and was subject to possible selection bias and confounding. It also did not assess the frequency or quantity of cannabis or opioid use, or the type of chronic pain.
Regardless of the century, physicians throughout the ages have known that real medicines carry risks. Any truly medicinal substance is able to give a little whack to one or more bodily processes. The goal is to whack the body back into normal functioning. That’s basically what medicine is all about – strategically whacking our physiology. But anything capable of whacking (which is to say any real medicine) is capable of harming at least a few of the many patients who would take it. This fact is so non-negotiable that we have a name for doctors who claim to have discovered effective medicines that don’t have any risks: we call them quacks.
Crashes are up by as much as 6 percent in Colorado, Nevada, Oregon and Washington, compared with neighboring states that haven’t legalized marijuana for recreational use, new research from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) shows.
A new study confirms that cannabis use is related to impaired and lasting effects on adolescent cognitive development.
To understand the relationship between alcohol, cannabis use and cognitive development among adolescents at all levels of consumption (abstinent, occasional consumer or high consumer), the research team followed a sample of 3,826 Canadian adolescents over a period of four years. Using a developmentally sensitive design, the authors investigated relationships between year-to-year changes in substance use and cognitive development across a number of cognitive domains, such as recall memory, perceptual reasoning, inhibition and working memory. Multi-level regression models were used to simultaneously test vulnerability and concurrent and lasting effects on each cognitive domain. The study found that vulnerability to cannabis and alcohol use in adolescence was associated with generally lower performance on all cognitive domains.
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