SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans

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“Last fall, there were reports that antibodies wane quickly after infection with SARS-CoV-2, and mainstream media interpreted that to mean that immunity was not long-lived,” said senior author Ali Ellebedy, PhD, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. “But that’s a misinterpretation of the data. It’s normal for antibody levels to go down after acute infection, but they don’t go down to zero — they plateau. Here, we found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies for the rest of people’s lives. That’s strong evidence for long-lasting immunity.”

Mild COVID-19 Induces Lasting Antibody Protection — https://ntk-institute.org/article/mild-covid-19-induces-lasting-antibody-protection

Here’s the link to the original research article abstract:

Turner, J.S., Kim, W., Kalaidina, E. et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans. Nature (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4

How to make COVID vaccines more effective: give people vitamin and mineral supplements

For the immune system to fight off infection or generate good protection against a disease following vaccination, it needs a variety of micronutrients. This is likely to be just as true for COVID-19 as for other diseases. Given that malnutrition is common among elderly people, raising their vitamin and mineral levels before they get vaccinated could be a way of boosting the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines.

How to make COVID vaccines more effective: give people vitamin and mineral supplementshttps://theconversation.com/how-to-make-covid-vaccines-more-effective-give-people-vitamin-and-mineral-supplements-154974

Follow the link above to read the entire article. And take your multivitamin.

Immune system mounts a lasting defense after recovery from COVID-19

A closer look at the memory B cells revealed something surprising: these cells had gone through numerous rounds of mutation even after the infection resolved, and as a result the antibodies they produced were much more effective than the originals. Subsequent lab experiments showed this new set of antibodies were better able to latch on tightly to the virus and could recognize even mutated versions of it.

Rockefeller University. “Immune system mounts a lasting defense after recovery from COVID-19, researchers find.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210121131909.htm (accessed January 26, 2021).

Journal Reference – Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03207-w

COVID-19: Study Suggests Durable Immune Response After SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 might last for years, according to a study posted on the preprint server bioRxiv.

Some 185 adults who recovered from COVID-19 (most had mildly symptomatic disease) provided blood samples for analysis. The majority provided a single sample, but roughly 20% provided multiple samples over several months.

The researchers found that levels of spike-specific memory B cells (which make antibodies as needed) increased with time — and were higher at 4–6 months than at earlier time points in most participants who gave multiple samples. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers were generally stable, showing only modest declines at 6–8 months.

COVID-19: Study Suggests Durable Immune Response After SARS-CoV-2 Infection — https://www.jwatch.org/fw117245/2020/11/17/covid-19-study-suggests-durable-immune-response-after

I hope these findings are replicated in other studies.

Effect of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Immune Function in Older People

Conclusion: Increased FV intake improves the Pneumovax II vaccination antibody response in older people, which links an achievable dietary goal with improved immune function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00858728.

via Effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on immune function in older people: a randomized controlled trial.

Mom was right.  Eat your vegetables.