Results: Our study documented 28,333 deaths during follow-up. The 3rd quintile of fruit and vegetable intake was associated with the lowest hazard ratio (HR) of total mortality (HR, 0.87, 95% CI, 0.83-0.90, P nonlinear <0.001) compared to the 1st quintile. The nonlinear dose-response relationship plateaued at about 5 servings/day (svg/d), but above that level, higher intake was not associated with additional risk reduction. We found similar nonlinear associations for CVD, cancer and respiratory disease mortality. Compared to fruit and vegetable intake <1.5 svg/d, the intake level ≥5 svg/d was associated with HRs (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.82 (0.72-0.93) and 0.55 (0.44-0.67) for cancer, CVD and respiratory disease mortality, respectively. Among individual fruits and vegetables, the associations of intakes with mortality were heterogeneous. Higher intakes of most fruit and vegetable subgroups were associated with lower total mortality, whereas higher intake of starchy vegetable such as peas and corn was not associated with total mortality.
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Non-linear dose response. What would The Ultimate Vegan do with this data?