Conclusion All NAFLD histological stages were associated with significantly increased overall mortality, and this risk increased progressively with worsening NAFLD histology. Most of this excess mortality was from extrahepatic cancer and cirrhosis, while in contrast, the contributions of cardiovascular disease and HCC were modest.Mortality in biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from a nationwide cohort — https://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2020/10/09/gutjnl-2020-322786?rss=1
Diet. That’s it. That’s my post.
Of these 1,567 participants, 400 were assigned to two weekly sessions of high intensity interval training (HIIT), 387 were assigned to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT), and 780 to follow the Norwegian guidelines for physical activity (control group), all for five years.
After five years, the overall mortality rate was 4.6% (72 participants).
The researchers found no difference in all cause mortality between the control group (4.7%, 37 participants) and combined HIIT and MICT group (4.5%, 35 participants).
They also found no differences in cardiovascular disease or cancer between the control group and the combined HIIT and MICT group.BMJ. “Exercise intensity not linked to mortality risk in older adults, finds trial.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201007193656.htm (accessed October 8, 2020). — https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201007193656.htm
Finally some scientific justification for my lack of exercise.
Previous studies have been done on step counts and mortality. However, they were conducted primarily with older adults or among people with debilitating chronic conditions. This study tracked a representative sample of U.S. adults aged 40 and over; approximately 4,800 participants wore accelerometers for up to seven days between 2003 and 2006. The participants were then followed for mortality through 2015 via the National Death Index. The researchers calculated associations between mortality and step number and intensity after adjustment for demographic and behavioral risk factors, body mass index, and health status at the start of the study.
They found that, compared with taking 4,000 steps per day, a number considered to be low for adults, taking 8,000 steps per day was associated with a 51% lower risk for all-cause mortality (or death from all causes). Taking 12,000 steps per day was associated with a 65% lower risk compared with taking 4,000 steps. In contrast, the authors saw no association between step intensity and risk of death after accounting for the total number of steps taken per day.
Higher daily step count linked with lower all-cause mortality
I am so screwed.
Plant Protein Linked to Longer Life
Link above is to NEJM Journal Watch article.
Conclusions and Relevance In this large prospective study, higher plant protein intake was associated with lower total and CVD-related mortality. Although animal protein intake was not associated with mortality outcomes, replacement of red meat protein or processed meat protein with plant protein was associated with lower total, cancer-related, and CVD-related mortality.
JAMA Internal Medicine article (Free abstract)
Note: Study focused on Japanese adults.
Plant‐Based Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All‐Cause Mortality in a General Population of Middle‐Aged Adults
In this community‐based cohort of US adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline, we found that higher adherence to an overall plant‐based diet or a pro-vegetarian diet, diets that are higher in plant foods and lower in animal foods, was associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality. Healthy plant‐based diets, which are higher in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, tea, and coffee and lower in animal foods, were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality.
Our study is one of the few studies that used data from a general population. Prospective studies of Seventh‐Day Adventists in the United States and Canada found that vegetarians had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality compared with nonvegetarians.4 The EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition)‐Oxford study of vegetarians, vegans, and health‐conscious individuals reported that the risk of incident ischemic heart disease and deaths caused by circulatory disease was lower in vegetarians than nonvegetarians.5, 24 However, these findings were not replicated in population‐based studies in Australia and the United States.6, 13 Notably, a prior study that used data from a nationally representative sample administered a brief questionnaire that assessed the frequency with which participants consumed specific types of animal food (red meat, processed meat, poultry, or fish or seafood) to characterize participants’ dietary intakes.6 Such dietary measurement may not have adequately represented dietary patterns on the basis of abundance of plant foods relative to animal foods. The plant‐based diet indexes we used in this study captured a wider spectrum of intake of plant foods and animal foods, leveraging the available dietary data, and allowed us to move away from defining plant‐based diets strictly based on exclusion of animal foods.
Eating More Red Meat Lately? You May Want to Reconsider That
Adults who up their red meat intake may face increased mortality risk, suggests an analysis in The BMJ.
The analysis included over 80,000 U.S. health professionals (about two-thirds women) who completed numerous food-frequency questionnaires over two decades. Researchers examined whether changes in red meat consumption over 8 years were associated with mortality risk in the subsequent 8 years. People with histories of cardiovascular disease or cancer were excluded.
During follow-up, some 14,000 participants died. After multivariable adjustment, those who increased their red meat consumption by more than 0.5 servings a day saw a significant 10% increase in mortality risk — regardless of their baseline intake.
Decreases in red meat consumption were associated with decreased mortality risk — but only when they were accompanied by increases in other proteins or plant-based foods like fish, nuts, or whole grains.
BMJ article link below.
Association of changes in red meat consumption with total and cause specific mortality among US women and men: two prospective cohort studies
PPI Use Linked to Elevated Mortality Risk
During a median 10 years’ follow-up, 37% of participants died. There were 46 excess deaths per 1000 PPI users in that time. PPIs were associated with excess mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients without indications for PPI use had higher mortality risk from CVD, CKD, and also upper gastrointestinal cancer. Longer duration of use was associated with greater risk.
The NEJM Journal Watch summary has a link to the full study from BMJ.