Higher Fruit and Vegetable Intake Associated With Lower Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Nonlinear Dose-Response Manner

Results: Our study documented 28,333 deaths during follow-up. The 3rd quintile of fruit and vegetable intake was associated with the lowest hazard ratio (HR) of total mortality (HR, 0.87, 95% CI, 0.83-0.90, P nonlinear <0.001) compared to the 1st quintile. The nonlinear dose-response relationship plateaued at about 5 servings/day (svg/d), but above that level, higher intake was not associated with additional risk reduction. We found similar nonlinear associations for CVD, cancer and respiratory disease mortality. Compared to fruit and vegetable intake <1.5 svg/d, the intake level ≥5 svg/d was associated with HRs (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.82 (0.72-0.93) and 0.55 (0.44-0.67) for cancer, CVD and respiratory disease mortality, respectively. Among individual fruits and vegetables, the associations of intakes with mortality were heterogeneous. Higher intakes of most fruit and vegetable subgroups were associated with lower total mortality, whereas higher intake of starchy vegetable such as peas and corn was not associated with total mortality.

Read the full abstract here.

Non-linear dose response.  What would The Ultimate Vegan do with this data?

Advertisements

The Mortality Effects of Retirement

WSJ: What do the numbers show?

DR. FITZPATRICK: There’s a sizable, 2% increase in male mortality at age 62 in the U.S. Over the 34 years we studied, there were an additional 400 to 800 deaths per year beyond what we expected, or an additional 13,000 to 27,000 excess male deaths within 12 months of turning 62. That 2% is 2 of every 100 men in the whole male population who turn 62. We really think these deaths are concentrated among the 10% of men who retire at 62, so instead of 2 in 100, it’d be 2 in 10. So, the increase in the probability of death for men who retire could be as high as 20%. I actually think that’s a pretty big deal.

You can find the original WSJ article at this link. 

If you can’t get past the firewall or if you want to read the original study go here.

    Social Security eligibility begins at age 62.
    1/3 of Americans immediately claim benefits upon reaching this age.
    There is a discontinuous increase in male mortality at age 62 of 2%.
    This increase in mortality is closely connected to changes in labor force participation.
    Our results suggest mortality rises because men retire once Social Security is available.

 

 

 

Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans

 

Mortality

Bean consumption has been associated with reduced risk of mortality, although only limited data on this endpoint are available. The Food Habits in Later Life Study followed nearly 800 older men and women for 7 y, during which time 169 participants died (61). Among the 5 populations evaluated, mean legume intake ranged from ~85 g/d in Japan and Greece to a low of only 14 g/d in some segments of the Australian population. Of all of the food groups studied, legumes were the only foods associated with a reduced risk of mortality: the RR was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) for every 20 g consumed. Dried beans were not assessed separately in this study, although other than in Japan, soybean intake would be negligible among the populations in this survey.

This study was published in 2014 and contains a wealth of information.  The online and PDF copies of the study are here.

Because populations in recent decades have adopted more Western-style diets, however, dried bean consumption has seen a decline. For example, between the 1960s and 1990s, dried bean intake decreased by 40% in India and by 24% in Mexico.

Bean consumption down, obesity up.  Hmmm……

Americans Are Retiring Later, Dying Sooner and Sicker In-Between – Bloomberg

Here are the stats: The U.S. age-adjusted mortality rate—a measure of the number of deaths per year—rose 1.2 percent from 2014 to 2015, according to the Society of Actuaries. That’s the first year-over-year increase since 2005, and only the second rise greater than 1 percent since 1980.

Source: Americans Are Retiring Later, Dying Sooner and Sicker In-Between – Bloomberg

Yikes!

Americans are Eating Less and Less Meat Every Year

What’s particularly fascinating is that almost none of the decline in meat (and fish) consumption in the U.S. comes from a major increase in vegetarianism. The rate of vegetarianism in our country has remained at around 5 to 8 percent for years. But the reduction in meat consumption by people who aren’t vegetarians but are cutting back on eating animal flesh—is what’s really fueling this trend. In fact, a 2013 Mintel study found that while only about 22 million Americans consider themselves vegetarian, 113 million buy meat alternatives like Gardein, Tofurky, and Beyond Meat. In other words, the market for vegetarian meats is being largely driven by non-vegetarians.

Source: Americans are Eating Less and Less Meat Every Year. Why?

This is an older article from 2015 but is worth sharing.

Change in Diet Can Lower Mortality Risk

A worsening diet over the course of 12 years was associated with an increased mortality of 6% to 12%, the researchers found.  Those who stayed consistently on a healthy diet starting at baseline had a 9% to 14% lower risk for death than those who stayed consistently on a poor diet.

Source: Change in Diet Can Lower Mortality Risk

Source: Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality — NEJM